Sunday, September 22, 2019
Compare and contrast the policy implications of the theories of justice in the works of John Rawls and Friedrich von Hayek. Illu - Essay Example 201). It is apparent that Rawls is not adequately certain in sorting out those distributive institutions that are in agreement with, or needed by, his principle. In reality, the theory is intentionally vague as Rawls, exercising his Ã¢â¬Ëmethod of avoidanceÃ¢â¬â¢, tries to Ã¢â¬Ëavoid the question of the correctness of important social theories and rather to set out a conception of justice on the basis of which the question of private property vs. socialism in the means of production could be reasonably discussedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Wood & Woods 1991, 202). This essay will review the similarity and difference between the implications of RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s and HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of justice on economic policy. Specifically, it will discuss the implication of RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of social justice on welfare economics, and the implication of HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s spontaneous economic order on economic policy. Basically, the difference between Rawls and Hayek is that the former focuses on microeconom ics whereas the other on macroeconomics; however, both of them included in their discussion property-owning democracy and market socialism in a minimal fashion, while disregarding capitalism. The Implication of RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s and HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Justice on Economic Policy The ideas of Rawls represent one thorough broad discussion of the issue to which others have felt forced to address. A comprehensive analysis of Rawls is relevant, not because he is Ã¢â¬ËaccurateÃ¢â¬â¢ whilst others are Ã¢â¬ËinaccurateÃ¢â¬â¢, but because he methodically deals with these major concerns and his outcomes may be of particular relevance. In a recent literature review interconnecting ethics and economics, Hausman and McPherson (1973) firmly argue for the importance of ethics to economic policy. They refer to RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of justice as well. They cite a number of ethics systematisations, including Rawls, and claim Ã¢â¬Å"In our view, the parts of ethical theories we shall survey here may be of more interests to economists than are the whole systemsÃ¢â¬ (Edgren 1995, 332). In applying the work of Rawls to discuss welfare economic policy economists have inclined to be careful. Others who mention Rawls frequently give an apparently rather more inclusive discussion. They will include the veil of ignorance, or the initial standpoint, for instance, but the emphasis is still quite on the difference theory and they still overlook much of the essence (Edgren 1995). Several applications of RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s difference theory to economic policy are in opposition to the essence of RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s notion. Primarily, it is entrenched in a thought system that is in some substantial essence utilitarian, whilst the system of Rawls is openly designed as a substitute for utilitarianism (Edgren 1995). Utilities, in welfare economics, are representation and not directly analogous, whilst in Rawls they are evidently the contrary (Bojer 2003). I think that some might claim that Ra wls is in error here, that he has created stronger premises than he requires, and that the remedial is incidentally. However, Rawls is struggling to expand the concept of primary goods and their importance to direct comparison. Moreover, the difference theory is related by Rawls to the anticipations of representative individuals in a theoretical scenario of imperfect unawareness, and is aimed to explain how social
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Essay about Aristotle Essay Aristotle Life Aristotle was born in the year 384 B. C in Stagira, Greece. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a court physician to a Macedonian king. Aristotle would the Macedonian influence for the rest of his life and will keep strong connections the Macedonian court. When Aristotle was 17 he was sent to Athens for a better education where he then attended PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Academy, the finest school in Athens. Aristotle created a very close relationship with Plato and his academy. Aristotle did not take over PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s position because of the Aristotle felt differently about some of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s statements about philosophy (Kenny, 2012). In 338 B. C Aristotle returned home to Macedonia to start teaching the young Alexander the Great. After Alexander had conquered Greece in 335 B. C Aristotle returned to Athens, and with AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s permission Aristotle began his own school, the school was called Ã¢â¬Å"LyceumÃ¢â¬ . In the same year that the school was opened AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s wife had passed away (Kenny, 2012). In 323 B.C Alexander The Great suddenly passed away and the Macedonian government was overthrown, and Aristotle was charged with impiety. Aristotle ran away to avoid execution he fled to Chalcis where he spent the rest of his life to die (Kenny, 2012). Motivation To Pursue Science Aristotle was born into the world of science, beginning with medicine. His father was a highly respected court physician. Aristotle was raised with science being a huge part of his life. Aristotle also attended one of the most prestigious schools in Greece. At the Lyceum Aristotle was exposed to a large amount of diverse subjects (Unknown, 2012). This is when Aristotle could have learned small amounts of each topic. Aristotle grew up in a Macedonian empire where he was surrounded by science, and this intrigued him and started his interest in studying natural sciences (Unknown, 2012). Aristotle was a very important figure to many different subjects, and made a contribution to many fields such as philosophy, astronomy, and logic. Contributions To The World Of Science. Aristotle gave influence to a variety of different topics and had a huge impact on the world of science through many different theories and views. Many people regarded Aristotle very highly and respected him just as must. Aristotle formed very important laws of motion, these laws are foundational in the subjects physics and astronomy. This law states that; heavier things fall faster and the speed of something falling depends on what it is falling through (Fowler, 2008). These play an important role because they are crucial variables in physics. These are also basic rules in the world of astronomy and understanding gravity. One of the most important things that came from Aristotle was AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Method. This is a method used to investigate a topic. This is now the main format that research pages use. The method has only three steps; defining the subject, considering the difficulties involved by reviewing the generally accepted views on the subject and finally, presenting your arguments and proof of the matter (Fowler, 2012). This method has been used throughout centuries for researchers as guidelines for researchers to write their papers. Finally, the last contribution being discussed is AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Causes. Aristotle believed in nature that animals and plants had four main causes; matter, form, moving cause, and final cause. For example, an author used an example of a table, the matter is wood, the form is the shape of the table, the moving cause is the fabricator of the table, and the final cause is the reason for the production of the table (Fowler, 2012). The purpose of this Ã¢â¬Å"experimentÃ¢â¬ was to view the progression of an animal, or object and to see the subject in its final stage. A final note, Aristotle also convinced the scientific community that the world was geocentric, that the world was at the middle of the universe and that stars and the other plants circled perfectly around the Earth. In conclusion, Aristotle was the chosen topic of this essay because he always has a part of each topic in the class. I never learned anything about Aristotle up until this point. Aristotle influenced an entire nation and the whole world of science. Aristotle had major inputs on many different sciences, including astronomy, physics, biology, and logic. Aristotle proved to be an interesting subject to research. Aristotle was the kind of person thatÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and views never changed, Aristotle was so involved with his science that he was sought out by government to be killed. It was interesting that Aristotle had an impact on the amount of sciences that he did. References Kenny, A. K. (2012). bio.. Retrieved November 12, 2012 from http://www. biography. com/people/aristotle-9188415? page=1 Unknown. (2012, January 16). Gradesaver. Retrieved November 13, 2013 from http://www. gradesaver. com/author/aristotle/ Fowler, M. (2008, September 03). U. va. physics. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://galileoandeinstein. physics. virginia. edu/lectures/aristot2. html Johnson, V. (2009, May 28). Early astronomers: Ptolemy, aristotle, copernicus, and galileo. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://kids. librarypoint. org/node/2280/.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Team Spirit And Team Work Management Essay Introduction The team is a dynamic set of people that has a particular purpose. Under certain conditions conducive to unity, the team is developed into an organized system of interdependent roles, institutions, common goals, values, attitudes and homogeneous behavior, which satisfies the needs of its members. Although Western culture promotes independence, people in todays organizations do not work in isolation but in teams so team working is very important. According to Guzzo Shea (1992:90) a real (not an artificial) team should have the following characteristics: It is recognized as an existing entity from its members but also from members who know the team. It provides a degree of interdependence among its members. It provides differentiation of tasks and roles. Human society is based on teams. From a practical standpoint, people participate in teams because: They feel the need to build social relationships. Teams are a source of information. Teams provide compensation (e.g. friendship, recognition, material goods). Participation in a team enables the individual to achieve goals that could not be achieved at his/her personal level. People are asked to join a team, a fact that occurs mainly in the workplace. In this case, it concerns formal groups, which vary from the informal groups that are created spontaneously based on common interests, friendships, etc. In the typical workplace, the formal (e.g. department of a business) groups and the informal groups coexist. Team Spirit Team Work All companies that want to achieve high productivity ensure that there are team spirit and cooperation among employees. In particular, many experts argue that teamwork is very effective in companies where the requirement for dissemination of information is very high. Thus, a connection is seen between information management and teamwork. For this reason, it is imperative to create effective teams, which should be motivated either through monetary and non monetary rewards to produce the best possible result. An effective team has clear objectives, is consisted of people with similar skills that match the teams goals. Members should trust each other, trust should be encouraged by an open, honest and cooperative business culture (Beer et al. 1984:66). Human Resources Management is one of the key factors for creating such culture. Good cooperation requires good communication and good leadership. Furthermore, companies should offer incentives, especially, team incentives, which will help increase cooperation. Apart from monetary incentives, companies must provide non-monetary rewards such as employee involvement and empowerment. Effective teamwork can be achieved through the proper organization of the teams. It is particularly beneficial for businesses because it increases flexibility and speed. A project is carried out by several people with different skills so it is possible to have more innovative ideas and decision making will be more effective due to the heterogeneity of the group. The most important thing is that the team should be encouraged and supported in order to increase productivity to a much greater extent than if the work was performed on an individual basis (Robbins Coulter 2002:255). The role of Human Resources Management is seen as particularly crucial to achieve this goal, i.e. the creation of efficient teams. Myths regarding teams Mature individuals compose mature teams. The team is the sum of individuals. Effective procedures, methods and rules of the team have universal application. The effectiveness of the group depends primarily on the quality of its leader. The individual must sacrifice his freedom to belong to the group. ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¹Ã Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± heigh ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Theory of group creation Among the theories that explain the formation of groups, the dominant and most prevalent is the one suggested by George Homans (Albanese and Van Fleet and 1985:250). According to this theory, the creation of a team is the result of three interrelated forces that constitute the environment in which every social system exists. These forces are the technology and know-how (technological environment) of the organization, the elements of the natural environment (place, facilities) of the organization, the training / culture of the environment or of the organization (norms, values, beliefs). These forces affect more people and require certain actions and interactions among them. These imposed actions and interactions in turn create emotional situations (emotions) and attitudes among individuals. The actions, interactions and emotions are interdependent with each other. For example, the more contacts (interactions) exist among individuals the more positive the emotions become and vice versa . This combination of these three parameters, Homans calls it external system because it is caused by the environment of the individuals. This combination leads to the initial creation of the group. After the initial creation of the group, its operation leads to internal dynamics i.e. developing new attitudes, norms and common benchmarks that are certainly not caused by the environment. These parameters of the internal dynamics of the group are according to Homans (Albanese and Van Fleet 1985:252) the internal system. Of course, between the internal environment of the group and its external environment there is a dynamic interactive relationship. The formation of a formal team/group The formation of a formal group follows four successive stages (Tuckman 1965:385, Tuckman Jensen 1977:421): The forming stage, which tries to determine the position and status of the team members. At this stage, a group of people form a team which has a very low level of maturity. The objectives and rules are not yet defined. The members do not know the behavior of others in the group, and the tasks are vague. At this stage members get to know each other and define the reasons for creating the team. Typically here, the members make efforts to ensure the existence and identity of the group or to create impressions. Communication is superficial, and people mostly think how to behave and invest the time, knowledge and skills within the group. There is skepticism, distrust and uncertainty.ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± usually commonly ordinarily customarily in the ordinary way ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± there in The storming stage where the first signs of conflicts and objections appear as the differences among the group members become apparent. This phase lasts up to the setting of a hierarchy within the group. At this stage, most members try to maintain their individuality in the group. This mainly involves the creation of sub-groups (cliques) among members with common main characteristics (age, characters, skills, etc.). These processes, however, lead to a more realistic definition of goals and procedures. Unfortunately, several teams remain long enough at this stage or they never get over it.ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± usually commonly ordinarily customarily in the ordinary way The stage of establishing standards (norming), where the team, after the conflict, begins to make its own rules of conduct, which should refer to the roles and status of the members as well as to the rules that should be followed. The stage of performance (performing), where the team is involved in the project assigned. At this stage, the team having made clear its goals and tasks and having determined the procedures and rules of operation, focuses on achieving its objectives. The members develop initiatives and make efforts towards this direction. It is basically a stage of maturity of the group meaning its structure and operating procedures are crystallized, the relationships among its members are developed as well as its consistency. Thus, the teams efforts are focused on delivering results. Of course, the team periodically assesses its performance, which may lead to a redefinition of goals, roles, tasks, procedures and rules. It should be stressed that the maintenance of the team at this stage needs constant effort from all members and of course from the leader. It is also important to understand that the group may, for various reasons (e.g. changes in the environment, new members, etc.) go back to previous stages.ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± usually commonly ordinarily customarily in the ordinary way ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± usually commonly ordinarily customarily in the ordinary way The stage of dissolution (adjournment), where the team has done its work and stops all activity. This stage is not always displayed, while a characteristic example concerns the various committees that are formed. Group decision making Many times the effective team function encounters certain problems that managers must be aware to identify and treat them successfully. Koontz and O Donnel (1968:327) suggest the following team problems: the high cost in time and money,indecision,the reconciliation of members to a lowest common denominator,the dominance of an individual on the team,the division of responsibility and the tyranny of the minority. ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¯Ã Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± many times According to Janis (1972), when a very coherent, hierarchical and disconnected from the social environment group must decide, it is possible that a mechanism is activated to protect the group from internal dissension, in which everyone tries to ensure unity and consensus and avoid conflict, which significantly reduces the quality of decision. Janis (1972:168) suggests the following symptoms of group thinking: The illusion of the perfection of the team The rationalization of everything and the depreciation of facts and objective information The illusion of moral underpinnings The devaluation of external environmental factors The pressure for compliance and strong patterns of thinking The illusion of unanimity Self-censorship The obstacles in the minds of others Small number of alternative solutions and refusal to reexamine decisions that have been taken or alternatives that have been rejected. Ignore or underestimate risks.ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃ Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â being creature ÃÅ½Ã ¬Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¸Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ the The opposite of group thinking is brain-storming. Such an approach means that the team takes a liberal stance and generates as many ideas as possibleÃ » (Mullins, 1989:409) because its members believe that quantity of ideas mean quality of ideas. One could expect that a group of brainstorming would generate more ideas to solve problems rather than if each member worked independently. Nevertheless, researches have shown that this is not true, and that such groups can inhibit creative thinking. Whatever promotes social interaction among all team members removes the chances of compromise and favours the appearance of opinions that no one dared to express in the group. The conflict is even more efficient (leading to more polarization) in groups where relationships are less formal, the hierarchy is less authoritarian and in groups having flexible rules of operating i.e. they focus more on the discussion rather than procedures (Isaacs 1993:99). These conditions are not far removed from those that play a positive role in creativity. Conflicts Team performance is sometimes impeded by conflicts. A conflict is associated with two or more sides, which may be individuals, groups, departments, companies, political parties, or even whole nations. The conflicts between the two sides may have the following types (Stoner 1989:59): Individual conflicts: the conflict in the individual decision-making. Organizational conflicts: the conflict of individuals or groups within an organization. Conflicts among organizations: the conflict among organizations or groups. These three categories generally arise from rather different basic mechanisms, although there are some overlaps. From an organizational point of view, the conflicts could be categorized as: Hierarchical conflict, i.e. conflict among different hierarchical levels, e.g. between the Board and the General Manager. Operational conflicts among different functions or departments of the business, e.g. between sales and production. Conflicts of executive fist line employees. Conflicts between the formal and informal organization. The conflicts among individuals and groups are a common and everyday phenomenon in the workplace. Typical symptoms of conflict are reluctance, hesitation, aggression, apathy, anxiety and distress (Hellerieger Slocum 1992:222). Individuals and groups with different values, experiences, knowledge, skills, attitudes, responsibilities, needs and goals, must coexist and cooperate in an organizational environment characterized by uncertainty and complexity in terms of structures, procedures, techniques, rules, etc. Therefore, conflicts are a natural consequence of this situation. The Classical School of Management (Taylor 1947:89, Fayol 1949:245) considers conflict as a negative phenomenon that should be avoided because of the malfunction caused and the negative effects on efficiency. For example, Elton Mayo (1933:87) and Peter Drucker (1974:220), in essence, argue that conflict and tension are only a perversion from the normal state of human actions, and therefore, should be allowed to disappear through training. In particular, the traditional concept featuring an even larger number of managers belief, supports that: -Conflicts can be avoided. -Conflicts arise from personality problems of individuals and from unsuccessful leadership. -Conflicts cause malfunctions in the organization and generally have explosive consequences Conflicts are solved with the physical removal of the conflicting parties or with the involvement of senior managers. However, unlike this traditional view, the development of social sciences, led to the development of the modern concept of management regarding conflicts and which supports the following (Robbins 1998:251): Conflicts are inevitable and are neither good nor bad, i.e. they may have either negative or positive consequences. These conflicts are mainly due to the complexity of organizational structures, procedures, rules, techniques and systems. The conflicts can be addressed positively by removing the reasons that cause them and by solving the problems. So, according to the modern perception, conflict is an inevitable and natural phenomenon. Besides its negative consequences that are more or less obvious, it can have positive ones like enabling people for more action, becoming a driving force for positive changes in the organization or becoming a developmental experience. It is therefore, obvious that it is more realistic to believe that conflicts have both positive and negative effects. In the positive ones belong new ideas, innovations and changes, better decision making, increased participation, a possible increase in productivity as well as the strengthening of relations if the conflict is solved positively by both sides. In the negative ones belong the waste of energy, the reduction of morale (less job satisfaction), the creation of mistrust and polarization between the conflicting parties, reduced productivity, making biased decisions, and the creation of irresponsible behavior. It is important therefore to find the appropriate level and intensity of the conflict, so the company can reap the highest benefits. According to Robbins (1998:280), an excellent level of conflict is the one that does not create stagnation, but on the contrary it stimulates creativity and relieves tension, in order to increase productivity and create conditions for change, without causing disruption and detuning or staff dissatisfaction and trends for leaving the company. From the above, it becomes obvious that the handling of conflict is one of the main tasks of the leader and of the other team members. The effectiveness of these controls undoubtedly contributes to the overall effectiveness of the team and the company (cast 1994). Prevention of inter-organizational conflict The main reason of appearance of conflicts in the organizational context is the segmentation of organizations (segmentation of departments, tasks and operations), which, however, is essential for their functionality. Given. therefore, the existing segmentation, Schein (1980:88) recommends the following methods to prevent conflict: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Emphasis should be given on the efficiency of the organization, while stressing the role and the contribution of the individual parts to the whole performance. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ There should be communication and cooperation among the groups of the same organization. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ There should be a circular rotation of the members in various departments to promote greater understanding of the particular problems faced by each department or each group. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Competition among departments or groups should be avoided. Emphasis should be given in coordinating the forces and actions aiming at the overall performance of the organization. The rewards should be allocated equally among the departments and they should be based on effort and contribution and not on the result. Characteristics of effective teams Sense of common mission and vision and understanding of the interdependence. Comfortable,informal atmosphere and positive climate. Existence of commonly accepted and optimistic goals, members commitment to them and the ability to redefine them as necessary. Align individual and team goals. Ability to select, correct methods, procedures and rules and change them when it is needed. Open and effective communication. Free expression of feelings, ideas, opinions, etc. Capability of achieving consensus through debate and arguments. Ability to self criticism and definition of minimum tolerable efficiency. Team learning through sharing of knowledge and experiences, successes, failures and mistakes. Exploiting the knowledge, skills, experience and attitudes of all members. Satisfaction and motivation of members. Ability to ensure consistency of the team. Encourage risk-taking initiatives and creativity. Commitment and accountability of members. Mutual respect, self-respect and mutual trust among members. Energy dynamism. Effective leadership. ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¹Ã Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± heigh ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ËÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã Ã Ã âÃÅ½Ã ±Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ °ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã ±ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ¬ÃÅ½Ã ³ÃÅ½Ã ½Ã Ã¢â¬ °Ã ÃâÃÅ½Ã · ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ ºÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃ Ã â ÃÅ½Ã Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ²ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã ® ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃÅ½Ã ¿ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã ÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å¡ ÃÅ½Ã »ÃÅ½Ã µÃÅ½Ã ¾ÃÅ½Ã ¹ÃÅ½Ã ºÃÅ½Ã ¿Ã Ã ÃÅ½Ã µÃ Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ½Ã ¹Ã Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ½ÃÅ½Ã ·ÃÅ½Ã ¼ÃÅ½Ã ± heigh Conclusion Team performance Regarding the productivity of individuals and groups based on experiments, observations and theoretical positions of social psychologists, the following conclusions can be drawn: It is not certain that a team performs better than a person. So when the person knows the job, and there is a moderate level of conflict, then s/he will perform better than the team. If the person has the skills to solve a complex task, s/he will succeed equally well but will need more time. The conflict gives rich and varied solutions to the problems the group has, however, it has increased costs in human working hours (Jehn 1995:270). In the working groups where the individual contribution to the project cannot be identified and evaluated, it is likely that the performance of individuals and of teams will be reduced (Jehn, 1997:272). When the person works in the presence of others and believes that the others assess his/her performance while the work that s/he does is simple or familiar, the chances are that s/he will perform well. The opposite will probably happen when the task is difficult or when the individual does not know it well. In teams, people evaluate the contribution of other members. If the person feels that others will do the job then s/he will reduce, presumably, his own performance (the phenomenon of the free rider). The same will be done if s/he feels that someone is trying to benefit from his work (the phenomenon of the sucker )(Kerr Brunn, 1983:82). Many of these phenomena explain partly the inefficiency of public services where there is no performance evaluation of each employee separately. The lack of motivation is also important and this has resulted in the phenomena of the free rider and the sucker. The committees for solving problems or performing tasks are not always the best solution, since they lead to a loss of incentives, diffusion of responsibility and avoidance of work by some employees. Excluding the cases calling for diversity of ideas and viewpoints, individuals will perform better than teams.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Attitudes Towards the Religion of Islam For centuries much of the Western world has targeted the Islamic religion as a threat to others. Many feel that the religion promotes hatred and violence while many others feel that Islam is a peaceful religion. With so many forms of the religion, though, it is hard to put a label on the religion as a whole as being either peaceful or violent. Perhaps the best way to try to answer these uncertainties about the nature of Islam is to look at its holy book, the Koran, and the practices of the religionÃ¢â¬â¢s followers. The Koran is the best source of information for non-Muslims to refer to regarding Islamic beliefs since Islam is followed in so many forms, and there is no central authority that can be consulted for a definitive decree of Islamic regulation. The Koran dictates to its followers what is morally right just as the Bible does for Christians. The Koran discusses a man named Mohammed who is looked at by Muslims as the perfect follower of the Islam faith. His role in the Koran parallels that of Jesus in the Bible. The differe...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
KEY TERMS Alliteration - The repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in Ã¢â¬Å"on scrolls of silver snowy sentencesÃ¢â¬ (Hart Crane). Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal; certain literary traditions, such as Old English verse, also alliterate using vowel sounds. Anaphora - The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs; for example, Ã¢â¬Å"We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hillsÃ¢â¬ (Winston S. Churchill). 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Linguistics. The use of a linguistic unit, such as a pronoun, to refer back to another unit, as the use of her to refer to Anne in the sentence Anne asked Edward to pass her the salt. Antithesis - Direct contrast; opposition. -The direct or exact opposite: Hope is the antithesis of despair. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure, as in Ã¢â¬Å"Hee for God only, shee for God in himÃ¢â¬ (John Milton). 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The second and contrasting part of such a juxtaposition. -The second stage of the Hegelian dialectic process, representing the opposite of the thesis. Apotheosis - Exaltation to divine rank or stature; deification. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Elevation to a preeminent or transcendent position; glorification: Ã¢â¬Å"Many observers have tried to attribute Warhol's current apotheosis to the subversive power of artistic visionÃ¢â¬ (Michiko Kakutani). 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã An exalted or glorified example: Their leader was the apotheosis of courage. Blank verse - Verse consisting of unrhymed lines, usually of iambic pentameter. Caesura - A pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A pause or interruption, as in conversation: After another weighty caesura the senator resumed speaking. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Latin and Greek prosody, a break in a line caused by the ending of a word within a foot, especially when this coincides with a sense division. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Music. A pause or breathing at a point of rhythmic division in a melody. Elegaic - Of, relating to, or involving elegy or mourning or expressing sorrow for that which is irrecoverably past: an elegiac lament for youthful ideals. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Of or composed in elegiac couplets. Enjambement - The continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of a poem to the next with no pause.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Marriage is the sacred bond between two people who love and cherish one another. Traditionally this bond has been held between man and woman. With so many changes in the world, there are more openly homosexual people in our society. Though people have become more accepting of the existence of homosexuality, gays and lesbians are still considered unequal when it comes to marriage. Homosexual couples should have the same rights to marry as heterosexual couples. Denying this right is unjust and is discrimination towards a group of people. Same-sex marriage has become more of a political issue when it really should be left up to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal and religious beliefs. Even though there are a few states that recognize legal same-sex marriage or domestic partnership, couples still have to face feeling inferior because of the little to no benefit they are given, while heterosexual marriages have an abundant of rights, privileges and benefits. If it is our constitutional right to get married to the person our choice then let it be. It should not matter what the next person feels because they have the right to feel the way they want to feel just as a person can fall in love and marry their significant other. Marriage is supposed to unite two people together for better and worse for the rest of their lives. Why would anyone want to deny another person the opportunity to commit their life to another person regardless of gender? According to a chart by Christine Vestal, a staff writer at Stateline.org, there is only six states that allow same-sex marriage: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire. New Jersey and Connecticut are the only two states that recognize civil union for same-sex couples al... ...d religion. Many may feel that it is simply tradition for a man a woman to be married and homosexual marriage is just not the norm. On the other hand, what I just mention was also not normal and yet we as a nation have overcome them. It has taken time and great effort to win these rights and the privilege to make our own choices. Today many are more open-minded and tolerant of the existence of homosexuality and homosexual couples and there are a handful of states that are more accepting of the ideal of same-sex marriage. It is only a matter of time before the rest of the nation accepts this. Works Cited Oison, Theadore B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Conservative Case for Gay MarriageÃ¢â¬ Newsweek 09 Jan, 2010: Web. Saunders, Cat. Ã¢â¬Å"Gay Marriage? Absolutely!Ã¢â¬ The News Time July 2000: Web. Vestal, Christine Ã¢â¬Å"Gay marriage legal in six statesÃ¢â¬ Stateline 04 Jun, 2009: Web.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In Eve Bunting Your move the main character is James he is mischief. James makes bad decisions, , he is lonely, and wants to fits in. James does not have that much friends. He tries to get some friends by doing bad things and he brings his brother along while he is doing that. James makes bad decisions because he brings his brother over when he is trying to get into the group. In the story when he climbed up the ladder and came down his brother was crying because he was afraid that he would fall down. He also did not tell anyone he was going out. He also brought him when there was a gun. His brother was scared he was being dragged on his knees. He say Ã¢â¬ you're dragging me too fast. Then when they go out of sight they stop and he kneels down to see if his brother was ok and he was bleeding. James basically had to carry him home. James does not have a lot of friends because he stays home with his brother a lot. He seems like he stay home a lot with his brother playing games. He also vandalizes to get friends. That means he is very desperate to have friends. He also has to take care of his brother. His neighbor has to take care of him and he has to thump on the wall. In the story when he was going to be in the group he had to bring his brother.James wants to fit in because he wants to have friends. In the story they told him to go up that tall highway sign and he did it. He did it because he wanted to be cool and have more friends. He was scared but he had to do it because they told him to do it so they would become their friend. He told no one that he was going out to meet with them. He also bring his brother with him. In conclusion james is mischief because he makes bad decisions, he is lonely, and he wants to fit in. He makes bad decisions because he brings his brother to the meet. In the story he did not tell anyone that he was going out with his brother. He does not have a lot of friends because in the story every night he has to take care of his brother when his mom is out. Evidence is that he was that he was vandalizing to have friends. He wants to fit in because he wants to have friends. He vandalized to get friends. This is why james is mischief